Jamaican born Marcus Moziah Garvey lead the first mass movement among African Americans. In 1921, he declared the Republic of Africa designating himself as president.
Garvey's message of "Africa for the Africans at home and abroad" was preached from the pulpit of his own African Orthodox Church.
Garvey raised 10 million dollars for his cause, and organized cooperatives, factories, and a commercial steamship Black Star Line.
Marcus Garvey was arrested in 1925 charged with mail fraud. He was sent to federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia, and deported to Jamaica in 1927.
He died in London in 1940.
Printer friendly version